Five Characteristics Of A Mineral – COMMON CHARACTERISTICS: CRYSTALLINE STATE: Gemstones occur in nature. Gemstones never existed. Minerval is made up of special chemicals that are unique to that mineral. Either liquid or gas. The atoms of minerals are arranged in a unique pattern. INORGANIC: Click animation above CHEMICAL DEFINED COMP: SOLID:
The most common elements found in Earth’s soil are oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron and calcium. The elements that make up precious stones. There are some famous gems. Only about 30. The most common are quartz, feldspar, mica, and calcite.
Five Characteristics Of A Mineral
Quartz, Mica, Feldspar and Calcite make up most of the minerals found in Earth’s crust. Gemstones are the building blocks of stone. A rock mass consists of one or more rocks.
Characteristics And Identifications
2. Rain, such as when the water is rich in minerals. (Example: Salt crystals) 3. Changes in pressure and temperature. 4. Fresh water solutions. Take a look
SILICATES A common group of minerals. It is made of silicon and oxygen. It makes up 90% of the earth’s land. Feldspar and Quartz form this group.
CHOICES Native Elements Native elements are minerals that are made up of one element. Some examples are: Gold (Au), Silver (Ag), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Diamond (C), Graphite (C), and Platinum (Pt). Some common images provided by the USGS Silver Gold Image Courtesy of the USGS Elements, such as iron, aluminum and silicon are rarely, if ever, found in the native land because they are highly reactive and form compounds with other materials.
OXIDES A group of mineral oxides composed of oxygen and iron. Some common oxides include hematite and magnetite.
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CARBONATES The carbonate group of minerals consists of carbon dioxide (CO3). Some common carbonates are calcite and dolomite.
ALIDURI Halite Copyright © Stonetrust, Inc. Halides are made up of halogen elements, chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), fluorine (F), and iodine (I) that form strong ionic bonds with the alkali and alkaline earth metals sodium (Na), calcium (Ca) and potassium ( K). Some examples include Halite (NaCl) and Fluorite (CaF2). Fluorite Image courtesy of USGS
SULFATES Barite Image Courtesy of USGS Sulfates are minerals that contain anionic groups of SO4 and alkaline earths and iron. Anhydrous (no water) and hydrous (water) are the two main groups of Sulfates. Barite (BaSO4) is a form of anhydrous sulfate and Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) is a form of sulfate. Gypsum Image Courtesy of USGS
SULFIDES Pyrite “Mad Gold” Copyright © Dr. Richard Busch Sulfides are mineral salts composed of one or more metals and sulfur. Most sulfides are economic minerals. Pyrite (FeS2) or “fool’s gold”, Galena (PbS), Cinnabar (HgS) and Molybdenite (MoS2) are the most common sulfide minerals. Cinnabar Image Courtesy of USGS
Hornblende: Mineral Information, Data And Localities
15 Identifying Stones Remember!: Rarely are minerals identified in single properties. These properties must be evaluated together to determine the true value of the gem. In order to be able to identify these stones from each other, we must look at the properties that are used to distinguish and differentiate these precious stones.
Physical Properties: Color, Size, Crystal Shape Physical Properties: Fracture, Hardness, Specific Gravity, Streak Special Properties: Strength, Magnetism, Fluorescence, Phosphorus, Doubling
17 Colors are the easiest things to see and don’t matter! Many gemstones can have the same color
18 Color Many gemstones can change color due to contamination, or they can change color under different conditions. For example, colorless or white quartz, impurities can make the mineral pink, red or purple!
Evolutionary System Of Mineralogy
Gemstones can be described as having a metallic luster or as a non-metallic luster. There are many terms used to describe light that is not metallic. Examples can be vitreous, such as quartz, or pearly, such as gypsum. Other words that can be used include oil, brown, and soil. Metal Non-metallic: Vitreous Non-metallic: Pearly Non-metallic: Earthy
Crystal Structure Crystal structure can be an important resource for identifying a gemstone if the gemstone has had time and space to form crystals. Most of the organisms found in rocks do not have room to grow.
21 Cleavage Cleavage is the process of easily separating or breaking apart at the surface of the soil. Fractures can also appear on small gemstones making them very useful!
22 Cleavage Mica is probably the best example because it splits the paper. It is said to have one perfect cleavage. Feldspar splits easily in two directions, always at or near a right angle. Micah Feldspar
Minerals And Mineral Properties
25 Hardness The hardness of a gemstone is its resistance to being pulled. Diamond is the hardest of all precious stones, and talc is the softest.
27 Hardness Talc (left) is the softest and has a hardness of 1. A soft pencil will draw talc. The plaster is hard and has a hardness of 2. The plaster is painted.
28 Hardness Calcite (left) has a hardness of 3 and only copper coins. Fluorite has a hardness of 4 and can be pulled with a metal or copper nail.
29 Hardness Apatite (left) has a hardness of 5 and can be scratched with a steel blade. Feldspar has a hardness of 6 and will scratch window glass.
Molybdenite: Mineral Information, Data And Localities
30 The hardness of quartz (left), with a weight of 7, is the hardness of ordinary rocks. Easy to paint hard glass and metal. Topaz has an intensity of 8 and will mirror quartz.
31 Hardness Corundum (left) has a hardness of 9. Corundum will stain topaz. A diamond with its weight of 10 can easily engrave precious stones.
32 Specific gravity tells you how much water is in the ground. Compare the density of minerals with the density of water. Fine gold can have a specific gravity as high as 19.3!
33 Streak A mineral’s streak is the color of its powder when you paint it on an unfired white tile. Lines are often not the same as minerals. The color of the gemstone may vary, but the color may not!
How Do Minerals Get Their Names?
34 Acid Test Calcite is calcium carbonate, CaCO3. If a drop of weak hydrochloric acid is placed on calcite, the acid evolves as carbon dioxide is released.
Malleable or Ductile Gemstones Malleable or Ductile Gemstones may be malleable or have a shape that is said to exhibit these properties. Examples: Gold, Silver, Platinum Gems that contain Iron, are magnetic and can be picked up by a magnet. Example: Magnetite
RADIOACTIVE FLUORESCENCE is a form of fluorescence under ultraviolet light. Some gems glow when the lights go out! Some minerals, such as uraninite, are radioactive. They produce subatomic particles that will run a Geiger counter.
The taste of salt Double extraction Halite (rock salt) can be recognized by its taste. Some crystals, which create a double image when placed over words in a book or object.
Minerals — [email protected]
Talc is used in perfumes, powders, ceramics, paints. Halite is used as a spice and food preservative. Sulfuric acid is used in fertilizers, fertilizers, and some antibiotics. Micah is used as an electronic operator. Diamonds, rubies, sapphires, and other precious stones are used in jewelry. Graphite is used in pencils and drawing rings. Fluorite is used as a source of fluoride in toothpaste. Bauxite is a mineral mined for its aluminum. We use aluminum for tins, food packaging, airplanes, and more.
40 Minerals Minerals are rocks that contain minerals that can be mined or mined. Precious metals include metals that are important for industry and commerce, such as copper, gold and iron. Copper ore Gold is often found in quartz, however it is often not as easy to find as it is in rock. ore
41 Precious stones Precious stones (also called precious stones or semi-precious stones) are attractive parts of precious stones, which when cut and polished are used to make jewelry or other ornaments. Price: It has quality, durability, size, and rarity. . (quartz, jade)
Minerals are usually found near volcanoes or in underground caves. The cooled magma of the volcano causes the minerals to coalesce. Underground caves are rich in mineral water and can produce minerals from minerals.
Classification Of Fishes, Both Recent And Fossil. Leo S. Berg. (traveaux De L’institut Zoologique De L’académie Des Sciences De L’u.r.s.s., Vol. 5, Pt. 2.) Leningrad: Akademiia Nauk, 1940. (reprinted By Edwards Brothers,
At one time or another, more than 50 gems were mined in Virginia. This has contributed greatly to the state’s economy but has sometimes had a negative impact on public health and safety, as well as the environment. Gold, copper, gypsum and kyanite were all mined in Virginia.
Biodiversity – minerals cannot come from materials that were once part of life. Coal is not a mineral because it is made from the remains of plants and animals
Minerals must have a crystalline structure – the recycling process of minerals does a great job. Face – the flat side of the crystal meets the sharp edges
Learning About Minerals
Gemstones must have a clear chemical structure – they always contain certain elements in defined proportions; most precious stones are