What Are The Four Major Processes That Form Sedimentary Rocks – Naturally occurring—meaning that the mineral is not man-made. What happens to solid ice at the right temperature on Earth? Ice water? Shaped Crystals – Some crystals are small, some are crystal clear. Specific Chemical Composition- Formula in specific parts, such as H2O, SiO2, NaCl, etc. “Typically” inorganic – not from a living source. Sugar crystals are organic because they come from a plant. The rules are sometimes unclear, since limestone (CaCO3) comes from invertebrates, but is considered a mineral.
4 How is salt produced? There are four main processes involved in the crystallization of minerals from magma—the cooling of magma to form igneous rocks. Rain – Water containing dissolved minerals evaporates, leaving the minerals behind. Pressure and temperature- Example: Coal or graphite can turn into diamond. Hydrothermal – Hot water mixed with minerals can cause chemical changes.
What Are The Four Major Processes That Form Sedimentary Rocks
Minerals present – mica, quartz, feldspar Limestone A cave mineral precipitate – calcite (CaCO3) garnet schist formed by high temperature and pressure Gold is produced by hydrothermal solution in quartz samples.
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6 Types of Salt There are many types of salt found around the world. Is there an easy way to remember minerals and their properties? Yes, we can categorize them. There are 6 different groups of minerals based on their composition.
7 Silicates Silicates are the most abundant minerals on earth. Silicates contain the elements silicon and oxygen. Together they form covalent bonds to form the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron. These are some of the most common minerals: quartz, feldspar, talc and mica.
8 Silicates Silicates are not only abundant but also very useful. Silicon is used not only to make glass and ceramics, but also to make microchips for technology such as timekeeping in watches, cell phones, and computers. Silicates are the most widely used minerals in the world.
They contain elements of carbon, oxygen, and one or more metals. Calcite and dolomite are mostly carbonate minerals. They are found in rocks such as limestone and marble.
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Carbonated If you’ve ever taken a Tums for an upset stomach, you’ve taken carbonated drinks.
11 Oxides Oxides are minerals that contain oxygen and one or more elements, usually metals. Some examples of common oxide minerals are: corundum (Al2O3), hematite (Fe2O3), and magnetite (Fe3O4).
The oldest rust is made of the hematite mineral.
13 Sulfates and Sulfidates Sulfates and sulfides are minerals that contain the element sulfur. When saline water rises, sulfides such as gypsum are formed. Sulfates such as galena and pyrite are produced from hot water systems such as hot springs.
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15 Halides Halides are salts that contain one or more elements other than the halogen ion. Halogens are elements found in group 7A of the periodic table. Other common elements in group 7A are fluorine (F) and chlorine (Cl). Two types of halide salts are halite (NaCl) and fluorite (CaF2). Both of these minerals are formed when large amounts of salt water evaporates.
17 Native Elements Native Elements are a group of minerals that occur naturally (like elements). Some common examples of natural elements are gold (Au), silver (Ag), copper (Cu), sulfur (S), and carbon (C). Graphite and diamond are minerals that contain the element carbon, but their properties are very different.
Presentation on theme: “Metamorphic Rocks Chapter 3, Section 3.4. Introductory Science – List 5 Things You Learned in the First 3 Weeks of Class!”- Presentation Transcript:
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Weather, Wind/Water/Ice/Gravity Deposit Sedimentation, Compaction, Cementation How are igneous rocks formed? Igneous rocks are formed when magma or lava cools and hardens. What is the difference between intrusive rock and extrusive igneous rock? Subsurface intrusive formations, surface or subsurface formations.
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6 Introduction Metamorphic rock is formed when the existing rock is changed by heat and pressure. Metamorphism is a very appropriate name because it means “change of form”. Rocks often look different from their original state after metamorphism. Variations, different music.
Most metamorphic changes occur under extreme heat and stress. This occurs several kilometers below the surface of the earth and extends to the surface. It happens in one of two settings!
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Contact metamorphism occurs when magma penetrates (sticks into) the rock. What happens when you put cheese on a hot sandwich? During contact and metamorphism, hot magma moves through the rock. they form what is known as ‘low-grade metamorphism’. The change in rocks is minimal. Marble is a common metamorphic rock that is formed when magma enters limestone.
During mountain building, large sections of rock are exposed to high temperatures and pressures. The plates are overlapping. That’s how conflict burns you! The changes in rock that occur as a result of this type of metamorphism result in significant changes and are called “regional metamorphism.” Regional change leads to greater change and higher change.
They provide the energy needed to improve the mineral’s luster. The heat of metamorphism comes from two sources: Magma changes temperature with depth Magma “burns” any rock it encounters as the temperature increases with depth. About every kilometer down, the temperature rises by a degree Celsius.
13 Temperature When buried at a depth of about 8 kilometers, clay minerals are at a temperature of about 150 to 200 degrees Celsius, which is degrees F. The salt decomposes and regenerates to form new minerals that are stable at this temperature. But silicates (quartz, etc.) are stable at this temperature, so they take a long time to form.
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14 Pressure (Stress) Like temperature, pressure increases with depth. Above you is the whole sky and the ground is pushing down! The pressure of the rock causes the spaces between the minerals to close, and you get a more cohesive rock with more strength. The extra speed makes the rocks move instead of breaking! Salt is smooth and long. That’s why mountains have rocks around them! Shoving in a pile of papers
Structure and Composition Metamorphic rocks are also classified by structure and composition! Formulas can be folated or non-folate.
When rocks undergo metamorphism, they become smaller and denser. Slate is a good example; Slate is formed when shale is subjected to heat and pressure slightly above normal. Pressure means that the clay minerals are more rigid, and the increased pressure causes the clay minerals to stick together in one direction. In extreme conditions, some minerals also change their orientation at the right angles to match the force. giving a ‘built-up’ appearance called foliated rock.
A metamorphic rock that has no structure is called a non-foliated rock. Most of them have only one mineral. Marble is a non-vegetable rock made of calcite. When the parent rock is altered, the crystals combine to form large interlocking crystals.
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When the existing rocks are changed by heat and pressure. What is the difference between contact metamorphism and regional metamorphism? Fusion occurs when hot magma enters, during the building of volcanoes. What are the two types of metamorphic rock? Foliated and Nonfoliated.
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Presentation on theme: “Minerals Chapter 2. Matter Part 1 Elements and the Periodic Table Everything in the universe is made of matter. Matter is anything that has mass.” – Presentation transcript:
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3 Elements and the Periodic Table Everything in the universe is made up of elements. Matter is anything that has mass and quantity. All kinds of building blocks are called elements. An element is something that cannot be divided into simpler elements, the simplest element is called an atom.
5 The periodic table is a model that arranges things according to physical and chemical properties. Groups are arranged in such a way that the products in the group have similar chemical properties. Time represents the number of protons. It also shows how the electrons of an atom are arranged.
6 There are 118 known elements of which only 8 (oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium) make up 98.7% of the earth’s crust. Another 110 are made.