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What Are The Types Of Energy Resources
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Types Of Renewable Energy
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By Ram Avtar 1, * , Netrananda Sahu 2, 3, Ashwani Kumar Aggarwal 4, Shamik Chakraborty 5, Ali Kharrazi 6, 7, Ali P. Yunus 8, Jie Dou 9 and Tonni Agustiono Kurniawan 10.
Key Laboratory of Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems (Xiamen University), Ministry of Education, College of Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China
Renewable And Nonrenewable Resources And Diffrent Types Of Energy Crossword
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 9 August 2019 / Accepted: 15 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
Renewable energy has received considerable attention in recent decades. This is partly due to the depletion of fossil fuels and increasing energy demand due to the world’s growing population. This paper attempts to give an idea of what researchers in the field of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) are doing to explore renewable energy sources for a more sustainable future. Various studies related to renewable energy sources, viz. Geothermal, wind energy, hydropower, biomass and solar energy, are reviewed in this article. The focus of this review paper is to explore how remote sensing and GIS-based techniques have been useful in exploring optimal locations for renewable energy resources. The paper also includes several case studies from different parts of the world using such techniques in exploring sites for different types of renewable energy sources. Although each remote sensing and GIS technique used to explore renewable energy resources may appear to be more effective than the other, it is important to remember that in reality a combination of different techniques is more effective. function Many problems in the use of remote sensing and GIS for renewable energy are explored from current and future perspectives and potential solutions are proposed. The authors believe that the conclusions and recommendations drawn from the case studies and the literature reviewed in the current study will be valuable to renewable energy scientists and policy makers.
Non-renewable energy sources based on fossil fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and firewood are widely used for power generation, transportation, home heating, and other manufacturing companies. However, non-renewable energy sources are depleting due to increasing energy demand from the growing population [1, 2, 3]. With a growing recognition and scientific consensus of the threat of climate change in the global community, the need to transition away from fossil fuels and transition to renewable energy has gained attention in recent years . Therefore, the need for energy is always there, so it is necessary to find alternative sources of energy. The share of renewable energy sources in electricity generation, heating systems and transportation in urban areas has increased significantly . This article focuses on five types of renewable energy sources, viz. geothermal, wind, biomass, hydropower and solar (Figure 1).
Geothermal energy is considered an environmentally viable option. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources, climate change is unlikely to have major negative impacts on the reliability of geothermal energy, but widespread use of geothermal energy could play a significantly important role. Greenhouse gas reduction . In addition, modern reservoir management technologies combined with natural continuous heat supply from Earth processes ensure that such geothermal systems can be used sustainably. Geothermal energy is physically generated mainly from the heat from the decay of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes in the Earth. This internal thermal combustion is estimated to generate a total thermal energy at a depth of 1.3 × 10 10 km.
Nonrenewable Resource: Definition, Features, And Examples
Oil barrels . Considering that the total global energy consumption is equal to 100 million barrels of oil per day, geothermal energy can theoretically supply for six million years . Geothermal resources can be broadly classified into three categories: hydrothermal or convective systems, conduction systems, and deep aquifers. Hydrothermal (convection) systems can be steam-dominant or water-dominant . Characteristic surface manifestations include hot springs, fumaroles, and chemically altered rocks. However, sometimes, there are no such surface manifestations. Meanwhile, conductive systems include hot rocks and magmatic sources, and deep aquifers contain fluids moving in porous media at depths greater than 3 km, but without a local magmatic heat source. Electricity can be generated using steam or secondary hydrocarbon vapors to drive turbine generators designed to produce electrons. Currently, geothermal energy accounts for about 0.4% of global energy generation and has a growth rate of 5%. In contrast, solar energy currently provides less than 0.2% of global energy generation, but has a high growth rate of about 25–30% [ 10 ]. Currently, the total installed capacity for geothermal resources worldwide is 10,898 MW, which corresponds to approximately 67,246 GWh of electricity .
Another alternative to fossil fuels, wind energy is an abundant, renewable and clean resource. Wind energy converts wind energy into electrical energy. Small offshore wind farms provide electricity to isolated locations. Statistics show that wind energy sources are among the fastest developing energy sources in the world. From 2000-2006, wind energy resources have quadrupled with many new projects in China, USA, Denmark among other countries [11, 12]. The potential of a wind energy project depends significantly on the location of the project. A good estimate for the investment helps to predict the outcome of the project and reduce uncertainty . The main success factors of a wind energy project are wind energy density, height above mean sea level, topography of land, connectivity through road network, proximity to grid and distance from protected areas . Based on location, wind farms are divided into two types viz. Onshore and offshore . Wind farms located on land are commonly known as onshore farms. For onshore wind farm projects, the terrain’s topography and surface roughness are taken into account. Proximity to the transmission and road network is also considered. For onshore wind farms, satellite images are mainly analyzed to check the feasibility of locations and heights . Satellite imagery sets guidelines for further decision-making regarding wind farm projects.
Along with satellite imagery, Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR), SOnic Detection And Ranging (SODAR) and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) are also widely used in wind farms. The use of remote sensing helps to optimize the installation process of mast-based sensors . Wind farms located in lakes, rivers, seas are called offshore wind farms. In offshore wind farms, resources must be qualified before financing the farm. In offshore wind energy, remote sensing can be used in three different ways: ground-based, airborne, and satellite-borne. Ground-based techniques are efficient when large wind turbines have to be installed and meteorological masts do not allow observations through the rotor blade . It is often used at a height of approximately 100 m to 200 m above ground level .
Perennial biomass crops and fast-growing non-food crops have the potential to provide sustainable bioenergy production . Biomass is the biological material of living organisms or plants. It is the most used energy source in less industrialized and less developed countries . Biomass is the most developed renewable energy source providing 35% and 3% of primary energy needs in developed countries . Biomass can be burned directly to produce heat or used as an energy source after being converted into different types of biofuels.
Renewable Resources, 10 Examples Of Renewable Resources
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