What Types Of Batteries Are Rechargeable – Batteries are the main power source for any wireless electronic device, be it a smartphone, laptop, watch or remote control. Can you imagine the situation without this energy source? We cannot build any wireless electronic devices and have to rely only on wired power supplies, even electric cars and space missions cannot be done without batteries. Today, in this tutorial, we will briefly talk about the types of batteries, their classification, terms and specifications.
Let’s look at the basic differences between batteries and cells. Also let’s find out why we actually need batteries and why we can’t use AC power (ie AC power from a wall outlet) instead of DC power.
What Types Of Batteries Are Rechargeable
Cells: Cells are power sources that can only provide very small DC voltages and currents. For example, if we take a cell that we use in a watch or a remote control, it can give a maximum of 1.5 to 3 volts.
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Battery: A battery works just like a cell, but a battery is a collection of cells arranged in series/parallel so that the voltage can be increased to a desired level. The most famous example of a battery is the power bank used to charge smartphones. If we look inside the power bank, we can find a set of batteries arranged in series/parallel as needed. Batteries are arranged in series to increase voltage and in parallel to increase current.
Now why is DC preferred over AC? In most portable electronics, AC cannot be stored where DC can be stored without any problems. Even the loss due to alternating current is more than DC current. This is why DC is preferred for portable electronic devices.
We cannot continue to use only voltage and current to describe battery performance, there are some unique terms that define battery characteristics such as watt-hours (mAh), C-rating, rated voltage, charge voltage, charge. Current, discharge current, cut-off voltage, endurance, cycle life are some of the terms used to define battery performance.
Usually, when reading the specifications of a smartphone, we see a battery rating of 2500 mAh or 4000 mAh. What does it mean?? let me see
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2500 mAh means the battery can transfer 2.5 amps/2500 mAh for 1 hour. The length of time the battery will work continuously depends on the load current it uses. So if the load draws only 25mA, the battery can last for 100 hours. How?
Although the theoretical calculations seem ideal, battery life will vary based on temperature and current usage, etc.
Therefore, a battery with a capacity of 10,000 mAh will have a C rating of 10 °C, which means that the battery is capable of supplying a current of 10 A at constant voltage (constant voltage / rated voltage).
When defining power capacity, we have a unit called Wh, which can be described as V * I * hours, but where does the voltage go? Since the battery voltage is constant and will not change, it is considered the nominal voltage (constant voltage). Therefore, since voltage is constant only amperes and hours are considered as units (Ah/mAh).
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This is the maximum current that can be used to charge the battery, that is, if there is a built-in battery protection circuit, it can be said that a maximum of 1A/2A can be used, but still 500mA is the best range for battery charging.
This is the maximum voltage that must be applied to the battery in order for the battery to charge effectively. Basically 4.2V is the best/standard charging voltage. Although we apply 5V to the battery, it only receives 4.2V.
If the current drawn by the load is greater than the rated discharge current, the battery will be discharged very quickly, which will cause the battery to heat up quickly and also cause the battery to explode. Therefore, it is wise to determine the amount of current drawn by the load as well as the maximum discharge current that the battery can withstand.
There may be situations where batteries are left idle/closed for long periods especially in stores/shops.
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Lifetime determines how long the battery can remain on and must be usable for a nominal period of time.
Lifetime is mainly considered for non-rechargeable batteries because these batteries can be used and discarded. For rechargeable batteries, even if the lifespan is less, we can still charge them.
It is the voltage at which the battery can be considered fully discharged, after which the battery will be damaged if we continue to discharge it. Therefore, outside of the voltage cut, the battery must be disconnected from the circuit and properly charged.
Let’s consider that the battery is fully charged and discharged to 80% of its actual capacity, then the battery is said to have completed one cycle. Similarly, the number of cycles a battery can charge and discharge determines its cycle life. The longer the cycle life, the better the quality of the battery. But if the battery is discharged to say 40% of the actual capacity given that the battery was initially fully charged, that cannot be considered as cycle life.
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For example, 100 Wh/Kg (the standard power density of an alkaline battery) means that for 1 kg of chemical compounds, it provides an energy capacity of 100 Wh.
Now the pen’s alkaline battery volume is 11.5 grams. So if 1 kg can provide a capacity of 100 watt hours, then how much can an 11.5 gram AAA battery provide? Let’s count.
So, we know that the nominal voltage of an alkaline battery is 1.5V. So 1.5 volts * (1.15/1.5) amps * 1 hour provides an energy capacity of 0.76 Ah = 760 mAh, which is about the same as a standard AAA alkaline battery.
This type of battery is basically considered a primary battery because it can only be used once. These batteries are non-rechargeable and reusable. Let’s take a look at the most common and everyday main batteries that we see.
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This type of battery is used in clocks, wall clocks, weighing machines, and other small low-power electronic products, etc.
This type of battery is commonly referred to as a secondary battery that can be recharged and reused. Although expensive, they can be recharged and reused and can last a long time if used properly and charged safely.
It consists of lead acid, which is very cheap and mostly seen in cars and vehicles to power lighting systems. This is preferred in products where size/space and weight are not important. These have a starting voltage rating of 2V to 24V and are commonly seen as 2V, 6V, 12V and 24V batteries. It has a power density of 7 Wh/Kg.
These batteries are made from a chemical combination of nickel and cadmium. Although these are rarely used, they are very cheap and have a very low discharge rate compared to NiMH batteries. These are available in all standard sizes like AA, AAA, C and rectangular shapes. The nominal voltage is 1.2V, it is often connected in series 3 which gives 3.6V. It has a power density of 60 Wh/Kg.
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Nickel-metal hydride batteries are better than nickel-metal hydride batteries because of their lower impact on the environment. Its nominal voltage is 1.25V, which is higher than Ni-Cad batteries. It has a lower nominal voltage than alkaline batteries and is a good alternative due to its availability and lower impact on the environment. The power density of Ni-MH batteries is 100 Wh/Kg.
These are made of lithium metal and are the latest rechargeable technology. Due to its compact size, it can be used in many mobile applications that require high power specifications. This is the best rechargeable battery out there. These have a nominal voltage of 3.7 V (we usually have 3.6 V and 7.2 V) and have a range of different power capacities (from 100 mAh to 1000 mAh). Even the C rating is from 1 to 10 degrees Celsius and the power density of the lithium-ion battery is 126 Wh/kg.
These are also called Li-ion polymer rechargeable batteries because they use a highly conductive gel/polymer electrolyte instead of a liquid electrolyte. This is under Li-ion technology. This is quite expensive. But the battery is very protected compared to the Li-ion battery. It has a power density of 185 Wh/Kg.
Application: Applies to all mobile devices that require rechargeable advantages, such as drones, robotics, RC toys, etc. Of course, these Li-ion batteries are rechargeable… We all know that lead-acid batteries, the kind you have under your hood, usually come in standard sizes, but Li-ion batteries can come in various packages and shapes. .
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One of the most common misconceptions is that polymer batteries are different. In fact, it is one of the most common types of lithium-ion batteries assembled and packaged in a flat pouch. their core