Two Types Of Pneumonia Vaccines – The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of a conjugate vaccine for routine childhood immunizations.
Although polysaccharide vaccines are effective in healthy adults, they are not effective in children under two years of age or those with weakened immune systems.
Two Types Of Pneumonia Vaccines
About 10% of infants who receive the conjugate vaccine experience redness at the injection site, fever or trouble sleeping.
Pneumonia (pneumococcal) Vaccine
The Accelerated Pneumococcal Vaccine Development and Introduction Plan (PneumoADIP) is a program designed to accelerate the evaluation and access of new pneumococcal vaccines to the developing world. PneumoADIP is funded by the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations (GAVI). Thirty GAVI countries have expressed interest in participating by 2010. PneumoADIP targets 2030. save 5.4 million children.
In June 2009 GAVI launched an Advance Market Committmt (AMC) pilot project to develop a pneumococcal vaccine to address two key policy challenges to vaccine introduction: the lack of affordable vaccines on the market and insufficient business incentives. developing vaccines against diseases in developing countries. Under the terms of the AMC, donors provide a legally binding guarantee that if a future vaccine is developed for a specific disease, they will purchase a predetermined quantity at an agreed price. The guarantee addresses the safety and efficacy standards that the vaccine must meet and is designed to allow multiple companies to compete to develop and produce the best new product possible. The AMC reduces risk for donor governments by eliminating the need to fund individual research and development projects that may never produce a vaccine. If no company produces a vaccine that meets predetermined standards, governments (and therefore their taxpayers) will allow nothing. For the biopharmaceutical industry, AMCs create a guaranteed market with the promise of returns that would not normally be available. For developing countries, the CMA provides funds to ensure these vaccines are affordable once they are developed. It is estimated that by 2020, pneumococcal AMC could prevent more than 1.5 million child deaths.
Doctors Without Borders criticized GAVI’s pneumococcal AMC for discouraging innovation, discouraging competition from new market tools and driving up vaccine prices. They said it allowed Pfizer and GlaxoSmithKline to maintain a duopoly and made it harder for the Serum Institute of India to sell a cheaper vaccine. The duopoly allowed price discrimination; slightly higher GAVI prices and unaffordable prices (about more than the GAVI price) in middle-income countries too wealthy to receive GAVI assistance.
Under the humanitarian mechanism, the pneumococcal vaccine is available to humanitarian actors (but not the government) at a lower cost than usual in humanitarian emergencies.
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As part of the national immunization program, newborns were vaccinated with the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV 7) in 2004. In 2011 it was replaced by a 13-volt conjugate (PCV 13). The transition to a 10-boat conjugate (PCV 10) was made in 2015. July. in Flanders and in 2016 May. in Wallonia.
At the end of 2020, the vaccination of nursing home residents with the 23-hour polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV 23) was launched.
General recommendations from Health Canada are the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV 13) for children 2 months to 18 years of age and the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV 23) for adults.
In 2017 May. The Government of India has decided to include pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in its universal immunization programme.
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The Health Council advised in 2018 that people over 60 should also be vaccinated on a 5-year periodic schedule. The resulting program, NPPV, began in 2020.
Health protection institutions in December 2020. reported that former COVID-19 patients also have an indication for this vaccine due to lung damage. Vaccination of this group is not part of the NPPV program.
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines 7 and 13 valent (PCV7 and PCV13) were included in the National Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in South Africa in 2009, respectively. and in 2011 South Africa became the first country in Africa – and the first country in the world with high HIV prevalence – to include PCV7 in its routine immunization programme.
The introduction of PCV7 has resulted in a significant reduction in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPI), including cases caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria, in South Africa. In children under two years of age, the overall incidence of IPDs decreased by almost 70% after the introduction of PCV, and IPDs caused by the bacteria targeted by the vaccine decreased by almost 90%.
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A significant reduction in IPD in unvaccinated children and adults is due to the indirect protection provided by herd immunity.
Pneumovax 23 is used in people of all ages and, according to the enclosed leaflet, has a protective efficacy of 76% to 92% (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6B**, 7F, 8, 9N, pneumococcus types , 9V included**, 10A, 11A, 12F, 14**, 15B, 17F, 18C, 19A**, 19F**, 20, 22F, 23F** and 33F**, where ** represents drug resistance pneumococcal infections i.e. 23 most common or invasive pneumococcal species of Streptococcus pneumoniae).
In February 2006. it has been announced that the UK government will start vaccinating children aged 2, 4 and 13 months with the conjugate vaccine.
In 2009 The European Medicines Agency approved the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for use in Europe.
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In the United States, the heptaval pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV 7) (eg, Prevnar, called Prevar in some countries).
) In 2000 was recommended for all children 2-23 months and at-risk children 24-59 months. A typical four-dose series is given at 2, 4, 6, and 12-14 months of age. in February 2010. a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine that protects against six additional serotypes (PCV 13 / brand name: Prevnar 13) has been introduced and can be given instead of the original Prevnar.
In 2021 June 10 a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine protecting against 20 serotypes under the brand name Prevnar 20 was approved.
The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV, Pneumovax is a brand name) provides at least 85% protection in people under 55 for five years or more.
Table Ii From Prevention Of Pneumococcal Disease In Children…. Which Pneumococcal Vaccine To Use
Vaccination is offered to those most at risk of infection, including people age 65 and older. As a general rule, the vaccine should be a single dose for life, as there is a high risk of side effects with repeated administration.
The American College of Physicians guidelines call for vaccination between ages 2 and 65, or at age 65. If someone was vaccinated before the age of 60, the guidelines call for a one-time booster.
Revaccination is periodically indicated for those who suffer from other diseases, such as asplia or nephrotic syndrome.
Consists of purified polysaccharides of 23 serotypes (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6b, 7F, 8, 9N, 9V, 10A, 11A, 12F, 14, 15B, 17F, 18C, 19A, 19F, 2F, 23F and 33F).
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This immune response is less robust than that induced by conjugate vaccines, which has several consequences. The vaccine is ineffective in children under 2 years old, probably due to their weaker immune system.
Since immunity is not lifelong, individuals should be revaccinated at age 65 if the primary vaccination was given at age 60 or younger.
Since mucosal immunity is not induced, the vaccine does not affect carrier counts, promote herd immunity, or protect against upper or lower respiratory tract infections.
Finally, eliciting an immune response using unconjugated polysaccharides from the capsules of other bacteria such as H. fluzae has proven to be much more difficult.
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The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine consists of capsular polysaccharides covalently linked to the highly immunogenic but non-toxic diphtheria toxoid CRM197.
This combination induces a significantly stronger immune response by recruiting CRM197-specific type 2 helper T cells, which enable immunoglobulin type switching (non-IgM immunoglobulin production) and memory B cell production.
Among other things, it induces mucosal immunity and long-term immunity after multiple exposures.
The main disadvantages of conjugate vaccines are that they only offer protection against a subset of the serotypes covered by polysaccharide vaccines.
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The geographic distribution of pneumococcal serotypes requires further research to find the most effective vaccine for populations in developing countries. In a previous study, the most common pneumococcal serotypes or groups in developed countries were, in descending order, 14, 6, 19, 18, 9, 23, 7, 4, 1, and 15. In developing countries, 6, 14, 8, 5, 1, 19, 9, 23, 18, 15 and 7.
To advance pneumococcal vaccine research and reduce child mortality, five countries and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation have created a $1.5 billion Pneumococcal Vaccine Market Engagement Pilot Project. Advance market commitments are a new approach to public health financing to promote the development and production of vaccines for developing countries.
The emergence of serotype-specific anticapsular monoclonal antibodies has also been studied in recent years. These antibodies have been shown to prolong survival in a mouse model of pneumococcal infection characterized by reduction of bacterial load and suppression of host inflammatory response.
Additional pneumococcal vaccine studies are underway to find a vaccine that provides broad protection against pneumococcal disease.
Pneumonia > Fact Sheets > Yale Medicine
, pneumonia vaccines for up to 23 forms of bacteria that cause pneumonia, with a new version according to